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Corresponding author. Jim Malone: moc. Address correspondence to Prof. Jim Malone. E-mail: ei. Published by the British Institute of Radiology. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective: Medical ethics has a tried and tested literature and a global active research community. Methods: The literature on medical ethics and implicit ICRP ethical values were reviewed qualitatively, with a view to identifying a system that will help guide contemporary behaviour in radiation protection of patients.

Results and conclusion: A widely recognized and well-respected system of medical ethics was identified that has global reach and claims acceptance in all cultures. Advances in knowledge: Five widely recognized values and the basis for them are identified to support the contemporary practice of diagnostic radiology. The most important of these, in our view, are: prudence: keep in mind possible long-term risks of actions and honesty: share knowledge with those concerned truthfully.

Building blocks for the pragmatic value set Beauchamp and Childress developed four principles for biomedical ethics. Human dignity It could be argued that respect for autonomy is actually based on a certain understanding of human dignity and thus the latter does not need to be invoked as an additional value. Honesty Honesty extends well beyond financial matters and includes openness and transparency with regard to the benefits and risks of procedures. Scenarios Application of the system is illustrated in six clinical scenarios.

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Open in a separate window. Scenarios Six scenarios are presented involving examinations conducted on individuals exposed in a medical setting. Figure 1, Scenario 1 This presents a scenario involving Mr Black, a professor of orthopaedic surgery. Figure 1. Figure 1, Scenario 2 This presents a scenario in which a female patient mids is referred to the radiology department of a moderate-sized district hospital for an elective non-urgent CT pelvic scan.

Figure 1, Scenario 3 This scenario deals with the practice of Dr Amber, an interventional cardiologist in private practice. Figure 1, Scenario 4 This scenario deals with a case in which Mr Grey is referred for an examination as part of his follow-up for previous cancer, from which he appears to be in remission. Figure 1, Scenario 5 This scenario concerns Dr Browne, an experienced well-trained paediatric radiologist.

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Figure 1, Scenario 6 Many issues arise in a subset of human exposures that appear like medical examinations, but are not conducted for the benefit of the person involved, i. FUNDING This project received no direct funding, but drew on experience in various employments and projects in which the authors were involved.

Persson L, Shrader-Frechette K. An evaluation of the ethical principles of the ICRP's radiation protection standards for workers. Health Phys ; — Hansson CO. Ethics and radiation protection. J Radiol Prot ; — Clarke RH. Changing philosophy in ICRP: the evolution of protection ethics and principles. Int J Low Radiat ; 1: 39— The argentine approach to radiation safety: its ethical basis.

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  • Ann ICRP ; 1. London and New York: Pergamon Press; Implications of Commission Recommendations that doses be kept as low as readily achievable, Publication Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press; Kant I.

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    ICRP International commission on radiological protection. The recommendations of the ICRP.

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      Cited 31 October Cited 17 July Cited 1 August Making progress in the ethical treatment of medical trainees. Epub ahead of print. Gillon R. J Med Ethics ; 29 : — Cited 10 November UN universal declaration of human rights.

      Cited 25 July The Wingspread statement on the precautionary principle. Wingspread conference held at Wingspread in Racine, WI. Cited 28 July The Belmont report. Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Report of the the national commission for the protection of human subjects of biomedical and behavioral research.

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      The body of compassion: ethics, medicine and the church. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishes; Herring J. Medical law and ethics.

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      Protection of pregnant patients during diagnostic medical exposures to ionizing radiation. Schreiner-Karoussou A. Review of existing issues and practices with respect to irradiation of patients and staff during pregnancy. Rad Prot Dos ; : — ACR practice guideline for imaging pregnant or potentially pregnant adolescents and women with ionizing radiation update. Cited 24 July Malone JF.